Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Thomas Aquinas, Treatise on Man - Essay Example It puts forward several topics concerning western Christian theology such as the existence of God, the purpose of man and the sacraments and how man should get back to God. The Summa Theologica is comprised of three major parts each of which deal with a major subject of Christian theology, the first part known as Prima Pars delves of God's existence in relation with nature; the creation of the earth, angels and man's nature. The second part Prima Secundae tackles in general principles of morality such as individual beliefs and vices while the third part Secunda Secundae deals with man's work for God and the sacraments and the ways of God. The Summa Theologica is composed of varying questions each of which is centered around a unique subtopic with the questions phrased as curious statements handling different issues such as whether Christ should have lived a life of poverty while on earth. Analysis: The first parts of concern are structured as eight questions such as questioning if th e happiness of man lies in wealth, scripture is quoted for example Ecclesiastes 10:19 states that whatever has the greatest hold over man's affections is ultimately the source of his happiness which is money therefore stating that man's happiness lies in wealth because it commands all things. Happiness is observed as a state of being made good by all things being perfect; money is portrayed as a guarantee for all of man's desires. St Thomas argues further by contradicting the notion that money is the source of man's happiness by stating that the good does not seek in spreading happiness but rather retaining it, Boethius argues by saying that wealth lies in giving rather than collecting as a miser which is hateful and applauds man's generosity. St Thomas is quick to disagree with the statement through his counter argument that shows how wealth is twofold consisting of the natural and artificial with the natural satisfying man's natural needs like food, dwellings and cars while the ar tificial wealth is that which is not related to nature such as money but exists as an invention of man for convenience in exchange and as a measure for salable things. He further argues that the happiness of man cannot be comprised of natural wealth as it is sought for to support man's nature and as such cannot be the last end rather is chosen as his last end. In addition, St Thomas argues that artificial wealth is sought to save humans from natural health while in its pursuit in a way that he procures natural wealth so as to obtain the necessities of life. The second question deals with the happiness in relation to the honor of man, the objection is made stating that all that belongs to God and people of honor and excellence is the source of happiness as it stands for perfection and good. Another objection is made which states that the greatest desire of man above happiness is to be honorable, of all manÃ¢â¬â¢s sufferings the loss of honor is the greatest and as such man's happin ess co-exists with honor. St Thomas answers the objections by stating that is not possible for happiness to be comprised of honor, because honor is accorded to man on account for his excellence and as a recognition of his achievements. Therefore man's good deeds can provide him some level f happiness but cannot entirely be the source of his happiness. A question is put forward as to
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
The Cultural Dimensions Between The Us And Netherlands Commerce Essay Culture is program of human mind which distinguishes two different human groups one from the other. Culture according to sense is a system of collectively held values geert hofstede Culture is a level of basic assumption and the belief that has been shared by members of an organisation, which operates unconsciously and is defined as taken for granted style of an organisation view of its self and environment -Edgar schein Culture is some thing which is differentiated between in groups, out-group of people. Now that the growth of the organisations are developing internationally there is much relation existing between the international companies to work together, these interactions occurs differently in different countries there develop the cultural difference which indeed effect the organisations. These cultural differences have been discussed and analysed by hofstede analysis in detail. Hofstede also defined culture as software of the mind which guides us with our daily interactions. Culture is a collective phenomenon of thinking, feeling, potential acting, which are acquired in early childhood .to change these acquired characteristics and establish and develop in new ways of thinking, feeling, acting is more difficult for the first time using the analogy in which computer are programmed the patterns of thinking, feeling, acting are referred to software of mind. Culture is a collective programme of mind, which has the ability to distinguish the members of one group of people from another. Hofstede did studies on IBM in 72 different countries and identify 5 different types of cultural dimensions HOFSTEDES CULTURAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UNITED STATES AND NETHERLANDS SOURCE: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_dimensions.php?culture1=95culture2=62 A. Power distance Power distance is used to measure how the subordinates usually respond to their power and authority according to hofstede they are high power distance an countries and low power distance countries in high power distance countries The subordinates are scared of the bosses, the bosses tend to be very autocratic and demanding over the employees, in lower power distance countries the subordinates are more friendly with the bosses who can even challenge them at work, the bosses usually tend to use a consultative management style. United States Us has the lower power distance ranking (PDI) (40), when compared to worlds average of 55 according to hofstede cultural dimension in a country with low power distance is an indicative of a great quality between societal, government, organisation and families. this shows the cooperative interactions across all power label and these creates suitable cultural environment, this low power distance shows that there is friendly relation between bosses and employees which helps the companies to stay stable in many situations. Netherlands Netherlands have the power distance (PDI) (44) which indicates that there is good understanding between the higher officials and the employees yet they might be some differences in some situations. B.Individualism Individualism is a level of independence in a community or organisation; there are two types of individualisms, high individualism and low individualism, low individualism according to hofstede is described as having low interaction and dependence for another work with other persons, in high individualism there is more involvement with the organisation and work responsibilities rather than the immediate family, a high individualism is expected to be more respectful and dedicated towards the work in the organisation. United States US ranks high in the individualism, which would indicate that there are more Individualistic attitude less bonding between direct family members and others Usually the members in the individualistic society concentrate more on the work and themselves and very close members. Individualism is expected to look after themselves, on the collective side we find people who are strongly bonded and connected with in groups and extended families which has exchangeable loyalty collectivism has no political meaning it refers only to group and is extremely fundamental one. Netherlands Netherlands has high individual ranking which is almost similar to us this also have loose bonding towards the family and others in this place people are expected to be more individualistic with the work they do, they usually care take of themselves and close family members where as in the collective society people are bonded to relations and are expected to work with each other in the organisation C.Masculinity By hofstede analysis it is said that mens goals are different from womens goals and these can be differentiated as masculine and feminine. Wherere the feminine values most strongly with the relationship at work they tend to work with people who cooperate well with each other living in an area where they are comfortable with the families and tend to have a security that they can work in particular organisation as long as they want to. Where the masculine is high, people have attitude of respecting for high earnings, getting recognition, which they deserve while doing good job, to look for opportunity in higher levels jobs challenging their work. United States In hofstede dimension us ranks 62 in masculinity, When it is compared to the worlds average of 50 they shows that united state has large gender difference, male domination in the society, usually male s are considered as important because of their roles play in the society this generates the female population become more competitive with woman trying to shift into male roles. Netherlands: Netherlands has the lowest hofstede dimension in masculinity at 14 they shows that there is a very low level of discrimination between the genders female are treated equally with males in the society this low masculinity ranking in the society displaces an open society D.Uncertainty avoidance: Uncertainty shows the level of uncertainty among people and uncertain situations they are two types of uncertainties high uncertainty and low uncertainty where an uncertainty is strong the culture tends to develop unknown situation as threats and people will tend to avoid them in places where uncertainty is low people feel very less threatened by the situations by these people tend to be more opened and innovative. United States United states ranks 46 in hofstede dimension of uncertainty avoidance when compared to the worlds average of 64 low ranking of uncertainty avoidance in a society is known to have very few rules and regulations and they do not attempt to control the outcomes and results this type of society is always opened to new ideas thoughts and beliefs. Netherlands The uncertainty avoidance of Netherlands is 53 when compared to worlds average of 64 this shows that Netherlands have moderate score for the uncertainty avoidance which indicates that cultural tenancy to minimize this shows the reduction level of uncertainty within the population with rules, laws, policies to overcome most of the situations. E.Long-term orientation This is the last hofstede cultural dimension, which was established in 1990, this refers to long-term and short-term tradition and values. Long-term orientation has a respect for the status of relationships .in short-term orientation there is sense of security and stability keeping up reputation, to respect the tradition. United States Us ranked lowest in the long term orientation as 29 when it is compared to worlds average of 45 they shows that society has the cultural traditional according to rules and regulations Netherlands: When compared to united states Netherlands have the high long term directions as 44 when compared to worlds average it shows that country have great level of social obligations, stability, reputations tradition are well followed 3. Sony Corporation of America: Sony corporation of America based in city of new York(united states of America) is a subsidiary of Sony head quarter in Tokyo Sony is a leader in manufacture of vedio,audio and communication and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets Sonys television ,computer entertainment, online business., music and its motion pictures makes Sony one of the most wide spread entertainment companies in the world Sonys us businesses include Sony pictures entertainment,sony electronic,sony computer entertainment America and Sony music entertainment the company recorded an annual sales of approximately 78.9$billions for the year 2009 Sony employees 1,71,300 people worldwide. Sony American is one of the leading music, audio visual electronic and information technology in united states and worldwide it is also said to be code developer of the CD, DVD and SACD.to its credit it is the first developer manufacturer and marketers of the play station .it is also inventor of vast range of consumer audio ,video products Sony has always manage to dominate the competitive electronics market within the united states .the company has almost seen a constant growth ever since its start in 1960 throughout this time In the us it has introduce a varied no of products that has revolutionise the electronic industry the walkman personal stereo and the Sony Trinitron televisions have become industrial leaders there are even more products on the horizon such as VIAO,CLIO AND SONY LINE OF CAMERAS . 4. Managing innovation and creativity For developing and producing these products Sony employees 21000 person work force the Sony mainly encourages these employee work forces to innovate take risk and to exceed customer expectation they work done by talented individuals lead to nearly 14 billion dollars in sales in the recent years a poll conducted among leading 2000 companies, in America Sony was recognize as number 1 brand name beating out cocola,ford and Disney Sony mainly invests greatly in the community and relationships with both their employees and customers every day at Sony corporate ethics play major part the company has develop ethics and action programme which is designed to train all levels of workers of Sony how they remain trust worthy, honesty and fair. 4.1SONY COMPANY innovation practices Changing management structure to remain innovative. The shift from analogy to digital technology and growth of it have been continuous at the 50th anniversary of Sony it was embarked as the start of new digital age by recognising its management structure to improve its decisional company system in order to respond more fast to the market change and to generate a structure e that encourages development of new business the Sony has now reconstructed their corporate structure from a vertical system to horizontal system for first time 50 year history in order to speed up market responsiveness and decision making Sony puts itself into strong position in fulfilling its goals by internalising much of the technological advances by being prepared to change and adapt from itself, 4.2. Establishing new ventures for innovation In the year 1995 Sony has made in long-term technology agreement with Intel Corporation, which is largest manufacturer of microprocessors for computers in US. Sony strengths of any software and hard ware are now combined with Intels strengths of computer technology and semi conductors. Since these agreement Sony has introduce the revolutionary DVD player and DVD anticipating with innovation(digital dream kids)digital dream kids shows the Sony strong commitments in realising their dream to digital technologies the digital Dream kids are analyse as future customers, at all the levels of Sony the employees become dream kids to continue generating new products that will satisfy meet the expectations of future customers to connect the potential of digital technology, Sony will identify dreams of young and digitally educate to create unique fun products and applications the Sony uses dream kids format in union with market research to regularly keep in touch with customers future dreams pio neers of market in the process of constant technological innovation marketing plays a vital role the Sony has always standardized the view that a very good marketing always involves pioneering the market ,which comes down to market creation in the long run there will always be a failure by simply producing the goods that meets market current needs rather than having react to changes Sony has been able to become proactive force by driving markets forward innovation research and development 4.3Future innovation programmes Sony has set few continuous challenges to face in coming future 1. Sony has plan to further strengthen its leading position in the AV while developing it business 2. To secure a firm foot hold in the entertainment industry it will promote a deeper understanding among the company employees and management 3. To integrate an entertainment business and electronics in order to create totally new business opportunities 5. Sony innovative research and development as a leader in innovation Sony electronics is a company that majorly focuses imagination than manufacturing in the past manufacturing hardware has been major drive of the business it is now currently taking newer and different paths to the future the companies majorly focussing its research and development on integrating the broadband and finding the synergy between contend and hardware the main aim of the Sony creative centre is that the engineers are thinking of the ways to touch the heart of consumers foreseeing future trends is the Sony main method of developing new product this really means that Sony is majorly trying to getting tune with what the consumers want and majorly what the consumers are willing to accept another major issue Sony currently faces is timing that is reducing products ahead of markets ability to use them in a recent fortune article emphasizing on happening of Sony electronics and development future wonders has a TV display with thickness of not more than fe w sheets of paper, granting light valve -a high definition video projector that turns entire walls into film screens ,digital chopsticks appointer that allows a user to pick a particular folder and transfer it directly to another screen beside, The companies R and D has been described as the future toy factory buy few of the open minded employees and engineers Sony.com indicates that Sony s vision is not necessarily about refrigerators talking to toasters .its about bringing to market products that capture imagination of consumers and enhance their life in the process. 6. Philips company profile Royal Philip electronics situated at Netherlands is a diversified health and well being company mainly focus on improving peoples life through their timely innovations it is a world leader in health care lightening and life style .Philips combines technology and design into peoples solutions based on simple customer needs and the brand promises of sense and simplicity the Philips head quarters is situated in Netherlands and employees approximately1,21,000 employees more than 60 countries around the world the company had sales of 26 billion Euros in year 2008,it is market leader in cardiac care and home health care and acute care it also leading provider of energy saving lightening solutions and new lightening applications along with life style products with personal wellbeing .it also has the pleasure by being a strong leadership position in flat TV grooming ,male shaving ,portable entertainment and oral health care 7. Philips innovative campus (PIC) This is a division of Philips electronics India limited situated at Bangalore and owned 96 percent by royal Philips electronics Netherlands it was established with a vision to been an innovative hub creating next generation solutions and products of life style and health care the pic comprises of the industries finest professionals using platforms including real time system and state of art software engineering paradigms ,component based software engineering and multi threaded architecture to drive the creation tomorrows services and products the pic has adopted an open innovation strategy which leverages the partnering companies for joint innovative power and researches in order to bring more innovations in the market faster and effectively 7.1Philips innovations On the fortune list of global top corporations royal Phillips electronics is in the 10th position the company active in its 60 different business varying from domestic appliances to consumer electronics and semiconductors to security systems they are said to be world leaders in digital technologies for wireless communications ,video compressions ,televisions and displays optical products and underlined semiconductor technologies that makes these break through possible the company plays leading role in shaping the worlds digital electronics by bringing meaning full technological innovations to people most of those innovations find their routes in the labs of Philip research the company is majorly dedicate to innovations that are environmentally sound in the terms of its products how it takes them .in the company, the traditionally design discipline are included with skills from the human science and technology from multi disciplinary research based approach that makes possible to gene rate new solution that convince and satisfy peoples needs and aspirations they call these new enriched design as high design 7.2Innovation at Philips Philips mammon trak system is develop for breast screening and diagnosis and biopsy application combination with mri system (magner resonance tomography) this application improves patient comfort, work flow and simplify the processor for biopsy this creation was done keeping in mind the cost and time wasted during the diagnosis of different breast cancers in women this innovation was result of increase of rate of breast cancer patients every year and demand for mammography procedures 8. Managing innovation and creativity At Philips design they think that they can full fill only people needs and desires when they truly understand what they are for these reason they always begin with getting information as much as possible about their targeted audiences, their values ,their priorities ,likes and dislikes with theses approach their international multi disciplinary and diverse design team is able to bring out truly applicable solutions that predict peoples needs enhance their customers business success by exceeding their expectations this is why the Philips is said to be one of the largest organisation in the world with around seven studios in north America ,Europe, Asia the Philip design wins a minimum of 50 plus design awards each year it comprises of a creative force of 400 professionals representing over 35 nationalities with a varied client list of 60 fortune 500 companies 9. Recommendations As both the firms are very large multinational firms, these firms have used quite very varied types of creative tools. The tools used by both the firms vary in final outcome but the tools used are generally the same. When taking the Sony America company, this company majorly emphasises on using the creative tools for the outcome of products related to the entertainment sector like televisions, music systems and other accessories. So, they majorly need to use the creative tools for making the life of human more comfort and more luxurious and easy. But when coming to the Philips they majorly work on healthcare like operating and scanning machines and other health products. They do even produce electronics like televisions music systems and other gadgets but not as the way Sony does. This company uses creative tools that give an outcome relating to bringing down the medical costs for a person. They are also majorly involved in semiconductor industry. Both the firms have very large group of people working in their own R and D centres using much of the creative tools. Even thought there are a numerous Sony products coming up every day, the company is lacking behind the Philips in the electronics sector. This can be said because Philips wins 50+ awards every year for its innovation achievements. Even though sonnys working on innovations there has been not much results compared to Philips. So we recommend that sent to use all the varied types of creative tools and techniques to even get better results. Philips has even mentioned that whatever new innovation it does it also does in way that is environmental friendly. 10. Conclusion Managing of innovation and creativity is a very important aspect for any organization in any country. For any firm to compete and sustain in this fast moving world it should majorly emphasise on using the creativity and innovation tools to get innovative and creative ideas. Hofstede methodology of cultures will help in better understanding the effects of culture on innovation. It will help in studying the cross cultural dimensions and help in growth of the firms eventually. For both multi- national firms it has been important that they manage the innovation and creativity centres well. As these are very large firms both Sony and Philips are managing their innovation centres well by spending lots of amounts on these centres. Both the companies are using varied tools for generating the innovative ideas. So by this we can conclude that both the companies are using and managing the innovations and creativity very well to gain more profits and lead the market.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Writers have different motivations on why they decide on what they write about. It must be something that will grab the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and make them want to read their works. Often writers include situations that are not considered appropriate for the era when the piece was written. Some subjects are too sexually explicit. In two such short stories, Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The StormÃ¢â¬ and Anton ChekhovÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Lady with the Little Dog,Ã¢â¬ both writers chose to involve adultery in their stories. Whatever motivation there is to cheat on a spouse, there is not an acceptable reason to do it. This controversial subject was not common and both authors chose to break the rules. Although equally successful in their writings, ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The StormÃ¢â¬ , was not published until many years after her death. Ã¢â¬Å"The Storm" is about two people, Calixta and Alcee, who had been in a previous relationship. Although both have moved on by getting married and starting a family, a chance encounter lead them to a lustrous affair. Ã¢â¬Å"Calixta and Alcee share a past romantic infatuation that is not consummated until the afternoon of the stormÃ¢â¬ (Milne 291). Chopin wrote this story in 1898, but it was not published at that time. Ã¢â¬Å"Chopin did not try to send Ã¢â¬ËThe StormÃ¢â¬â¢ out to editors...It was first published in The Complete Works of Kate Chopin in 1969Ã¢â¬ (Kate), which was sixty-five years after her death. This controversial subject was not the norm in the 1890Ã¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬Å"Female writers in 1898 did not write such detailed accounts of a sexual encounter...In the ease with which she wrote about human sexuality; Chopin was ahead of her timeÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Milne 296). The chance encounter between Calixta and Alcee happened during a tremendous storm. Calixta was home alone and ... ...). Whatever motivation there is to cheat on a spouse, there is not an acceptable reason to do it. Works Cited Akers, Tim. "The Lady with the Pet Dog." Short Stories for Students. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 198-214. Print. Catherine, Dominic. Ã¢â¬Å"Critical Essay on Ã¢â¬ËThe Storm.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Short Stories for Students. Detroit: Gale/Cengage Learning, 2008. 297-299. Print. Davis, Diana. "Review of Anton Chekhov's Short Story The Lady with the Dog." Yahoo! Contributor Network. 24 Aug. 2009. Web. 05 Apr. 2012. "Kate Chopin: Her Novels and Stories." Kate Chopin: The Awakening, The Storm, Stories, Biography. Ed. Bernard Koloski. n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2012. Milne, Ira Mark. "The Storm." Short Stories for Students. Detroit: Gale/Cengage Learning, 2008. 288-29 Print. Mohr, Nicole. "Passion in Kate Chopin's The Storm." Yahoo! Contributor Network. 5 May 2006. Web. 05 Apr. 2012.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
African Americans have a unique history as well as culture. Their history in the United States is greatly influenced and shaped by the events in the last three centuries. A period that would shape their destiny, their interactions as well as their orientation to most important events in life. The United States census figures put the number of African Americans at over thirty-eight millions in 2005. Of this population, over 55% of them reside in the metropolitan areas with cities like Chicago and New York being the homes to a huge majority of African Americans A close look at the African Americans in relation to the rest of their white counterparts reveals that they are disadvantaged in various aspects. This can only be understood by focusing at the underlying causes of this, key being the centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s discrimination and oppression meted out against the blacks by the successive regimes up to the period that the civil rights movement stepped up its calls for equality and political rights. African Americans had been for long subjected to slavery especially in the southern states. The end of slavery brought forth systemic discrimination where they were treated as second class citizens especially after the introduction of the Jim Crow laws that institutionalized racism. This is what is seen to be the cause behind the impoverished lot amongst the African Americans with 24. 7% of this population living in abject poverty. The group also remains disadvantaged in the education sector, health, housing as well as having the highest crime rates in the United States. Since the enactment of civil rights legislation, the African Americans population has made considerable steps towards improving their economic status largely narrowing the huge discrepancies that exist. This has been marked by the expansion of the African American middle class. Unlike in other ethnic groups like the white; there is parity across the gender amongst the blacks. Income levels in America are tilted to the disfavor of African Americans. This is largely seen as being linked to the inability to access other vital resources such as education and jobs. Speculative figures have it that over three quarter of African Americans aged above the age of 25 have not gone to college and hence do not possess college diplomas. By the turn of the century, over a third of the African American population living in the big cities was without employment compared to their white counterparts; this figure has not changed much (Brandon S, 1984). Life expectancy of the African American group compares unfavorably with that of the whites a fact exacerbated by the lack of medical and proper provision of health facilities. With a significant proportion of African Americans lacking medical care and proper provision of health facilities; with a significant proportion of African American having a low level of income and being unemployed, and with the united states lacking a universal health care system , African Americans are badly placed in terms of health facilities access. They are also at a higher risk of succumbing to chronic diseases as well as pandemics such as HIV aids. Statistics have it that of all people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 2001 and 2005, over half of them were African Americans. Cities that contain large populations of African Americans such as Washington DC contain the highest rates of HIV infections. African Americans have maintained a deep sense of religiosity this has been passed on from the days of slavery. Known as black churches, they have played a pivotal role in the struggle for blacks to acquire and consolidate civil and political rights. Majority of the evangelists have ended up as political figures playing a crucial role in the American civil rights movement.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was the result of a number of large financial scandals in the United States in the late 1990s and early 2000s. One of the most well-known corporate accounting scandals was the Enron scandal, which was exposed in 2001. Enron, an energy company that was considered one of the most financially sound corporations in the United States before the scandal, produced false earnings reports to shareholders and kept large debts off the accounting books (Peavler, 2016). Enron executives also committed fraud by embezzling corporate funds and manipulating the stock market. Enron shareholders lost around $74 billion dollars, Enron employees lost their retirement accounts, and some Enron employees even lost their jobs (The 10 Worst Corporate Accounting Scandals of All Time, n.d.). Another corporate accounting scandal that occurred in the United States before the Sarbanes-Oxley Act came into effect was the WorldCom scandal in 2002. Seventeen thousand employees were fired and $3.8 billion dollars in profit were removed from their accounting books after an internal audit discovered improper expense accounting in 2001 and 2002. This improper accounting inflated the cash flow so the company would not report a net loss, only a net gain (Hancock, 2002). A similar communications corporation, Adelphia, was also rocked by a corporate accounting scandal in 2002. The Securities and Exchange Commission filed charges against the founder of Adelphia and his three sonsShow MoreRelatedSarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002985 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Week # 2 Individual Assignment Ã¢â¬Æ' Sox Key Main Aspects for a Regulatory Environment Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed in 2002 by former president George Bush. Essentially to combat the Enron crisis. The Sox Act basically has regulatory control and creates an enviroment that is looking out for the public. Ideally this regulatory environment protects the public from fraud within corporations. Understanding, that while having this regulatoryRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20021614 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) was enacted to bring back public trust in markets. Building trust requires ethics within organizations. Through codes of ethics, organizations are put in line to conduct themselves in a manner that promotes public trust. Through defining a code of ethics, organizations can follow, market becomes fair for investors to have confidence in the integrity of the disclosures and financial reports given to them. The code of ethics include Ã¢â¬Å"the promotion of honest andRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 2002 Essay1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages well-known acts have been signed into laws by the presidents at the time to protect investors and consumers alike. A brief overview of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, a discussion of some of the provisions therein, opinions of others regarding the act and also my personal and professional opinion will be discussed below. The same will be examined about the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Senators Paul Sarbanes and Michael Oxley were the sponsors of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002Read MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20021563 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) was enacted to bring back public trust in markets. Building trust requires ethics within organizations. Through codes of ethics, organizations conduct themselves in a manner that promotes public trust. Through defining a code of ethics, organizations can follow, the market becomes fair for investors to have confidence in the integrity of the disclosures and financial reports given to them. 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This research will provide information on how the Sarbanes-Oxley Act affects smaller organizations and how it encourages employees to inform of wrong doings. Brief Synopsis of Sarbanes-Oxley The U.S. Congress passed the Sarbanes-OxleyRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20022137 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesdishonest act that remained common amongst companies such as Enron, WorldCom, and Tyco was the fabrication of financial statements. These companies were reporting false information on their financial statements so that it would appear that the companies were making profits. However, those companies were actually losing money instead. Because of these companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ actions, the call to have American businesses to be regulated under new rules served as a very important need. In 2002, Paul Sarbanes from theRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20021525 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Cheeseman, 2013). Congress ordered the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX Act) to shield customers from the fraudulent exercises of significant partnerships. This paper will give a brief history of the SOX Act, portray how it will shield general society from fraud inside of partne rships, and give a presumption to the viability of the capacity of the demonstration to shield purchasers from future frauds. History of the SOX Act Congress established the Sarbanes-Oxley ActRead MoreSarbanes Oxley Act of 20021322 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Descriptions of the main aspects of the regulatory environment which will protect the public from fraud within corporations are going to be provided in this paper. A special attention to the Sarbanes Ã¢â¬â Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) requirement; along with an evaluation of whether Sarbanes-Oxley Act will be effective in avoiding future frauds based on their implemented rules and regulations. The main aspects of the regulatory environment are based on the different laws and regulationsRead MoreThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 20024779 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002Introduction2001-2002 was marked by the Arthur Andersen accounting scandal and the collapse of Enron and WorldCom. Corporate reforms were demanded by the government, the investors and the American public to prevent similar future occurrences. Viewed to be largely a result of failed or poor governance, insufficient disclosure practices, and a lack of satisfactory internal controls, in 2002 George W. Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Act that became effective on
Thursday, December 26, 2019
AT T Financial Analysis A companyÃ¢â¬â¢s past performance is a good indicator of its future outlook. Investors give proper attention to different ratios. In this report I am analyzing the financial position and financial performance of AT T to conclude whether it is better to invest in the company or not. AT T Inc. is the United States largest telephone services provider. Its main business involves local, long distance telephone services, DSL internet, digital television and wireless services. In this analysis I have used the balance sheet, the income statement and the statement of cash flows given in the financial statements for the year ended 2006, 2007 and 2008. Initial Review The external auditors in their report say that inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦No company can satisfy its owners by just sufficing. They need to show an increasing EPS, increasing dividends and generate return on assets and on equity in order to attract new capital. The following ratios are good indicators of how well the company is performing. PROFITABILITY RATIOS (1) Gross Profit Percentage 2008 2007 2006 Gross Profit 61,463.00 60,673.00 27,034.00 Ã · Total Revenue 124,028.00 118,928.00 63,055.00 Gross Profit Percentage 49.6% 51.0% 42.9% (2) Operating Income Percentage 2008 2007 2006 Operating Income 22,596.00 20,404.00 10,288.00 Ã · Total Revenue 124,028.00 118,928.00 63,055.00 Operating Income Percentage 18.2% 17.2% 16.3% (3) Return on Equity 2008 2007 2006 Net Income After Tax 12,867.00 11,951.00 7,356.00 Ã · Average Shareholders Equity 105,857.00 115,453.50 85,115.00 Return on Equity 12.2% 10.4% 8.6% (4) Return on Assets 2008 2007 2006 Net Income 12,867.00 11,951.00 7,356.00 Ã · Average Total Assets 270,444.50 273,139.00 208,133.00 Return on Assets 4.8% 4.4% 3.5% (5) Cash Return on Assets 2008 2007 2006 Cash Flow from Operations 33,656.00 34,242.00 15,688.00 Ã · Average Total Assets 270,444.50 273,139.00 208,133.00 Cash Return on Assets 12.4% 12.5% 7.5% (6) Quality of Income 2008 2007 2006 Cash Flow from Operations 33,656.00 34,242.00 15,688.00 Ã · Operating Income 22,596.00 20,404.00 10,288.00 Quality ofShow MoreRelatedAtT Financial Analysis Essay1879 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesshould be able to make better financial decisions. Have a better understanding and ability to process and implement strategies and make successful decisions. Financial data from past periods of a company, provides a perspective for future outcomes. Investors give proper attention to different ratios. In this report I am analyzing the financial position and financial performance of AT T, a US. Telecommunication Company. The objective and conclusion of this analysis will be, if is either good orRead MoreAt T Financial Analysis Paper1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesATT stock as plodded along for much of the past year. The shares have largely traded sideways, missing out on the large bull-market run many stocks participated in during 2014. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance has been bolstered by a number of factors, including effective cost management, share repurchases, and traction for its latest broadband, video, and IP telephone service, namely U-Verse. 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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), is a viral infection that attacks the immune system, which then results in a slow progression of this illness. This viral infection can lead to further infections as well as possible cancer. Once the immune system can no longer continue its battle with HIV, this leads to what is commonly known as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV/AIDS is a common and devastating concern in many households, and has been a longstanding health issue affecting sub Saharan Africa. However, it should also be noted that countries around the world are all at risk of HIV/AIDS infection through the migration of people to their region. HIV/AIDS is a much more prominent health concern characterizing sub Saharan Africa because of the treatment of women in society, extreme poverty resulting in the lack of education for people and access to basic needs, and government inaction to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The experiences that individuals encounter when it comes to HIV/AIDS may be a type of social determinant for how one might tolerate the slow progression of the human immunodeficiency viral infection. With regards to how a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s social status relate to their experience with HIV/AIDS, females may experience gender-based violence differently when compared to others in their home country. Women who live in sub Saharan Africa are seen to hold a lower status in everyday society. In sub Saharan Africa, it is suggested that the overall population more maleShow MoreRelatedHiv / Aids And Aids1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHIV/AIDS is the major ongoing issue attacking sub-Saharan Africa. The damage caused by HIV/AIDS strips families, communities, and increases poverty. In Kenya, the plague has mainly targeted those in the fertile and reproductive age groups. 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